# Ruby Operators, Conditionals and loops

**Background**

We talked about data types, variables, classes in the previous posts. Once we understand those fundamental concepts, we also need to know “how” can be automate and make those entities work and make the machines do the mundane work of searching, sifting, sorting with all possible permutations and combinations. In this post , we will see what operations can be perform on variables, we will see how to “conditionally” execute a piece of code and also explore loops.

This link pretty much covers everything related to operators. In fact, the credit completely goes to the link above. Just repeating what is covered there.

## Ruby Arithmetic Operators:

Assume variable a holds 10 and variable b holds 20, then:

Operator | Description | Example |
---|---|---|

+ | Addition – Adds values on either side of the operator | a + b will give 30 |

– | Subtraction – Subtracts right hand operand from left hand operand | a – b will give -10 |

* | Multiplication – Multiplies values on either side of the operator | a * b will give 200 |

/ | Division – Divides left hand operand by right hand operand | b / a will give 2 |

% | Modulus – Divides left hand operand by right hand operand and returns remainder | b % a will give 0 |

** | Exponent – Performs exponential (power) calculation on operators | a**b will give 10 to the power 20 |

## Ruby Comparison Operators:

Assume variable a holds 10 and variable b holds 20, then:

Operator | Description | Example |
---|---|---|

== | Checks if the value of two operands are equal or not, if yes then condition becomes true. | (a == b) is not true. |

!= | Checks if the value of two operands are equal or not, if values are not equal then condition becomes true. | (a != b) is true. |

> | Checks if the value of left operand is greater than the value of right operand, if yes then condition becomes true. | (a > b) is not true. |

< | Checks if the value of left operand is less than the value of right operand, if yes then condition becomes true. | (a < b) is true. |

>= | Checks if the value of left operand is greater than or equal to the value of right operand, if yes then condition becomes true. | (a >= b) is not true. |

<= | Checks if the value of left operand is less than or equal to the value of right operand, if yes then condition becomes true. | (a <= b) is true. |

<=> | Combined comparison operator. Returns 0 if first operand equals second, 1 if first operand is greater than the second and -1 if first operand is less than the second. | (a <=> b) returns -1. |

=== | Used to test equality within a when clause of a case statement. |
(1…10) === 5 returns true. |

.eql? |
True if the receiver and argument have both the same type and equal values. | 1 == 1.0 returns true, but 1.eql?(1.0) is false. |

equal? |
True if the receiver and argument have the same object id. | if aObj is duplicate of bObj then aObj == bObj is true, a.equal?bObj is false but a.equal?aObj is true. |

## Ruby Assignment Operators:

Assume variable a holds 10 and variable b holds 20, then:

Operator | Description | Example |
---|---|---|

= | Simple assignment operator, Assigns values from right side operands to left side operand | c = a + b will assigne value of a + b into c |

+= | Add AND assignment operator, It adds right operand to the left operand and assign the result to left operand | c += a is equivalent to c = c + a |

-= | Subtract AND assignment operator, It subtracts right operand from the left operand and assign the result to left operand | c -= a is equivalent to c = c – a |

*= | Multiply AND assignment operator, It multiplies right operand with the left operand and assign the result to left operand | c *= a is equivalent to c = c * a |

/= | Divide AND assignment operator, It divides left operand with the right operand and assign the result to left operand | c /= a is equivalent to c = c / a |

%= | Modulus AND assignment operator, It takes modulus using two operands and assign the result to left operand | c %= a is equivalent to c = c % a |

**= | Exponent AND assignment operator, Performs exponential (power) calculation on operators and assign value to the left operand | c **= a is equivalent to c = c ** a |

## Ruby Parallel Assignment:

Ruby also supports the parallel assignment of variables. This enables multiple variables to be initialized with a single line of Ruby code. For example:

1 2 3 |
a = 10 b = 20 c = 30 |

may be more quickly declared using parallel assignment:

1 |
a, b, c = 10, 20, 30 |

Parallel assignment is also useful for swapping the values held in two variables:

1 |
a, b = b, c |

## Ruby Bitwise Operators:

Bitwise operator works on bits and perform bit by bit operation.

Assume if a = 60; and b = 13; now in binary format they will be as follows:

a = 0011 1100

b = 0000 1101

—————–

a&b = 0000 1100

a|b = 0011 1101

a^b = 0011 0001

~a = 1100 0011

There are following Bitwise operators supported by Ruby language

Operator | Description | Example |
---|---|---|

& | Binary AND Operator copies a bit to the result if it exists in both operands. | (a & b) will give 12, which is 0000 1100 |

| | Binary OR Operator copies a bit if it exists in either operand. | (a | b) will give 61, which is 0011 1101 |

^ | Binary XOR Operator copies the bit if it is set in one operand but not both. | (a ^ b) will give 49, which is 0011 0001 |

~ | Binary Ones Complement Operator is unary and has the effect of ‘flipping’ bits. | (~a ) will give -61, which is 1100 0011 in 2’s complement form due to a signed binary number. |

<< | Binary Left Shift Operator. The left operands value is moved left by the number of bits specified by the right operand. | a << 2 will give 240, which is 1111 0000 |

>> | Binary Right Shift Operator. The left operands value is moved right by the number of bits specified by the right operand. | a >> 2 will give 15, which is 0000 1111 |

## Ruby Logical Operators:

There are following logical operators supported by Ruby language

Assume variable a holds 10 and variable b holds 20, then:

Operator | Description | Example |
---|---|---|

and | Called Logical AND operator. If both the operands are true, then the condition becomes true. | (a and b) is true. |

or | Called Logical OR Operator. If any of the two operands are non zero, then the condition becomes true. | (a or b) is true. |

&& | Called Logical AND operator. If both the operands are non zero, then the condition becomes true. | (a && b) is true. |

|| | Called Logical OR Operator. If any of the two operands are non zero, then the condition becomes true. | (a || b) is true. |

! | Called Logical NOT Operator. Use to reverses the logical state of its operand. If a condition is true, then Logical NOT operator will make false. | !(a && b) is false. |

not | Called Logical NOT Operator. Use to reverses the logical state of its operand. If a condition is true, then Logical NOT operator will make false. | not(a && b) is false. |

## Ruby Ternary operator:

There is one more operator called Ternary Operator. This first evaluates an expression for a true or false value and then execute one of the two given statements depending upon the result of the evaluation. The conditional operator has this syntax:

Operator | Description | Example |
---|---|---|

? : | Conditional Expression | If Condition is true ? Then value X : Otherwise value Y |

## Ruby Range operators:

Sequence ranges in Ruby are used to create a range of successive values – consisting of a start value, an end value and a range of values in between.

In Ruby, these sequences are created using the “..” and “…” range operators. The two-dot form creates an inclusive range, while the three-dot form creates a range that excludes the specified high value.

Operator | Description | Example |
---|---|---|

.. | Creates a range from start point to end point inclusive | 1..10 Creates a range from 1 to 10 inclusive |

… | Creates a range from start point to end point exclusive | 1…10 Creates a range from 1 to 9 |

## Ruby defined? operators:

defined? is a special operator that takes the form of a method call to determine whether or not the passed expression is defined. It returns a description string of the expression, or *nil*if the expression isn’t defined.

There are various usage of defined? operator:

## Usage 1

1 |
defined? variable # True if variable is initialized |

For Example:

1 2 3 4 |
foo = 42 defined? foo # => "local-variable" defined? $_ # => "global-variable" defined? bar # => nil (undefined) |

## Usage 2

1 |
defined? method_call # True if a method is defined |

For Example:

1 2 3 |
defined? puts # => "method" defined? puts(bar) # => nil (bar is not defined here) defined? unpack # => nil (not defined here) |

## Usage 3

1 2 |
# True if a method exists that can be called with super user defined? super |

For Example:

1 2 |
defined? super # => "super" (if it can be called) defined? super # => nil (if it cannot be) |

## Usage 4

1 |
defined? yield # True if a code block has been passed |

For Example:

1 2 |
defined? yield # => "yield" (if there is a block passed) defined? yield # => nil (if there is no block) |